Friday, 23 June 2017

Research shows the seabed has become much warmer

Örjan Gustafsson (Google translate):

"Our measurements showed that the seabed has become much warmer. At the end of the Ice Age was the temperature on the seabed -18 degrees. Now it is about 0 degrees. We also explored the line between frozen and thawed permafrost in the seabed and could see that this limit lies at 10-30 meters depth, and the limit drops quickly. The permafrost thaws by an average of 14 cm a year now and then 4 meters in the last 30 years."


The arctic permafrost is thawing faster than previously thought
Arktis permafrost tinar snabbare än vad som tidigare är känt



22 June, 2017

Permafrost in the seabed in the World, the arctic ocean thaws now with an average of 14 cm per year. It is much more than what you've previously known, and the process threatens to amplify global warming, according to a new study from Stockholm university which is published today in the scientific journal Nature Communications.

It is a huge area that is now thaws, it is as large as four times the Baltic sea, " says Örjan Gustafsson, professor in biogeochemistry at the Department of environmental science and analytical chemistry (ACES), Stockholm university, which is one of the authors behind the study.
He has in several research projects and expeditions investigated the conditions in the Arctic seas in order to, inter alia, note the changes of not only the carbon stored in the permafrost, as it's usually called ”the sleeping giants”. If this carbon is released levels of carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere which increases the warming of the climate.
Örjan Gustafsson and the research group's latest study is based on observations that have been made over the years 2011-2015 in kusthavet off the north-east Siberia.
We had a isläger there and was out with vehicles and rigs on the sea ice in order to drill down to the permafrost in the seabed.
The cores of sediment could then be compared with surveys carried out in the same places 30 years ago.
Our measurements showed that the seabed has become much warmer. At the end of the ice age was the temperature on the seabed -18 degrees. Now, it is approximately 0 degrees. We also investigated the boundaries between frozen and unfrozen permafrost in the seabed and were able to see that this limit is set at 10-30 meters deep, and the limit drops quickly. The permafrost thaws with an average of 14 cm per year now and that is 4 metres in the last 30 years.
Permafrost is the constantly frozen soil that consists of decomposed organic material, and already the format of methane; moreover, when a heating also of methane in the form of natural gas released when permafrostlagret weakened.
"Previously, the natural gas held in place by the permafrost that has formed over it as a lid, but now when the permafrost thaws and becomes perforated as create channels and then gas is released," says Örjan Gustafsson, who argue that the latest study is important in order to understand the processes occurring in the arctic seabed.
For the first time, we have been able to observe how permafrost is constructed in the seabed, the temperature and how quickly it thaws. If these processes affect the global warming, it is important to take the height for it and prepare society for it development, " says Örjan Gustafsson.
About the study:

Natalia Shakhova, Igor Semiletov, Örjan Gustafsson, Valentin Sergienko, Leopold Lobkovsky, Oleg Dudarev, Vladimir Tumskoy, Michael Grigoriev, Alexey Mazurov, Anatoly Salyuk, Roman Ananiev, Andrey Koshurnikov, Denis Kosmach, Alexander Charkin, Nicolay Dmitrevsky, Victor Karnaukh, Alexey Parking, Alexander Meluzov & Denis Chernykh, 2017: “Current rates and mechanisms of subsea permafrost degradation in the East Siberian Arctic Shelf”, Nature Communications.
Link to the article in Nature Communications:
Contact:

Örjan Gustafsson, 070-324 73 17, orjan.gustafsson@aces.su.se

This is the paper from Shakhova, Semiletoc et. al.

Current rates and mechanisms of subsea permafrost degradation in the East Siberian Arctic Shelf

Nature,9 May, 2017

Abstract

The rates of subsea permafrost degradation and occurrence of gas-migration pathways are key factors controlling the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) methane (CH4) emissions, yet these factors still require assessment. It is thought that after inundation, permafrost-degradation rates would decrease over time and submerged thaw-lake taliks would freeze; therefore, no CH4 release would occur for millennia. Here we present results of the first comprehensive scientific re-drilling to show that subsea permafrost in the near-shore zone of the ESAS has a downward movement of the ice-bonded permafrost table of ∼14 cm year−1 over the past 31–32 years. Our data reveal polygonal thermokarst patterns on the seafloor and gas-migration associated with submerged taliks, ice scouring and pockmarks. Knowing the rate and mechanisms of subsea permafrost degradation is a prerequisite to meaningful predictions of near-future CH4 release in the Arctic.
Introduction

Arctic coastal zone permafrost (ground that remains ≤0 °C for ≥2 year) developed when the Northern Hemisphere cooled ∼2.5 Myr ago1. Most subsea permafrost formed on the continental shelves when the shelves were exposed during periods of low sea level associated with times of major glacial activity2. As the glaciers eventually melted, the sea level rose, which submerged this permafrost3. Inundation can markedly change permafrost properties because the permafrost is warmed by as much as 17 °C by the overlying seawater4. The following factors were suggested to determine the evolution of subsea permafrost after inundation: duration of submergence compared with the duration of previous exposure above the sea surface; thermal state and thickness of permafrost before inundation; coastal morphology and hydro- and lithodynamics; shoreline configuration and retreat rate; pre-existing thermokarst (that is, the process by which characteristic landforms result from the thawing of ice-rich permafrost or the melting of massive ice) accompanied by formation of thaw lakes; bottom water temperature and salinity; and sediment composition, including ice content5,6,7,8.
Warming of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) began ∼12–13 thousand years (kyr) ago when the entire shelf area was exposed above sea level, forming a major fraction of the coastal plain7. By the time of inundation, numerous thaw lakes underlain by taliks had developed in that area due to thermokarst9. A talik is a layer or body of unfrozen ground in a permafrost area in which the temperature is above 0 °C due to the local thermal regime of the ground10. The fate of these thermokarst-induced features in the near-shore zone, only recently inundated, has long been debated8,9,11,12. The widely accepted hypothesis is that the <0 °C bottom seawater temperature would halt thermokarst formation and cause taliks to freeze by creating a negative temperature profile in the sediments7,8,9. However, no observational evidence to confirm this hypothesis has existed to date.
On the contrary, some authors suggested that seawater could be transported into the sediments at sufficient rates to lower the freezing point of the sediment pore water, even in ice-bonded permafrost13,14. In addition, via convective fingering, seawater transport rates could be orders of magnitude greater than heat conduction from the surface15, perhaps preventing freezing of the submerged thaw-lake taliks and, thus, causing advanced top–down permafrost degradation16. In addition, the ESAS near-shore zone is largely affected by riverine runoff, which causes the mean annual bottom seawater temperature to be >0 °C (ref. 17). Heat flux from large rivers can cause deep talik formation beneath riverbeds; it has been suggested that such taliks might exist below the paleo rivers18. A significant area of the ESAS is affected by paleo-river valleys19. A substantial part of submerged ESAS permafrost consists of ice complexes (ICs), which are Late Pleistocene ice-rich syncryogenic deposits with massive ice wedges20,21. Before inundation, ICs are subjected to two destructive processes: thermo-denudation (upslope permafrost retreat under the influence of insolation and heat flux on the slope) and thermo-abrasion (mechanically and thermally caused retreat of exposed permafrost due to seawater and wind erosion)22,23. Some authors believe that after ICs are submerged, they are subjected to thermo-abrasion and chemical- and current-induced seafloor erosion, to list a few such destructive processes24,25.
Permafrost-degradation rates could be evaluated by assessing changes in the ice-bonded permafrost table (IBPT) position. The position of the IBPT in the ESAS has been investigated using seismic techniques26,27. However, there are problems with high attenuation of the reflected seismic signal where sediments contain gas28 and/or reflect variability in permafrost properties29,30. Methods based on electrical properties of frozen/unfrozen ground were shown to be applicable in shallow coastal waters31,32. Poor knowledge of the physical and chemical processes occurring within subsea permafrost, combined with a lack of observational data for model calibration, restricts further progress in modelling the current state of subsea permafrost and associated methane (CH4) releases in the ESAS16,33. It is, therefore, necessary to conduct comprehensive geocryological investigations.
This study aimed to document subsea permafrost-degradation rates after submergence by directly studying frozen ground samples recovered from drilled boreholes, and interpreting geophysical data collected during repeated observations in the study area. On the basis of results of first comprehensive scientific re-drilling investigation of subsea permafrost in the ESAS, here we present observation-based demonstration of thawing of subsea permafrost resolved over decadal scale. Interpretation of geophysical data calibrated by drilling allows resolving on inter-annual scale upward migration of shallow gas. We demonstrate that thermokarst occurs after inundation, submerged thaw lakes not always freeze and could serve as gas-migration paths, and ice scouring serves as important mechanism of permafrost disturbance associated with gas releases. Knowing the rate and mechanisms of subsea permafrost degradation is a prerequisite to meaningful predictions of near-future CH4 release on the Arctic shelf.
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Results

Study area

In 2008–2014, we conducted four marine expeditions and four drilling campaigns in the study area between 70–74° N and 129–131° E with focus on the near-shore Laptev Sea southeast of the Lena Delta, the Buor-Khaya Bay (BKB, between 70–74° N and 129–131° E), and the Dmitry Laptev Strait (DLS, between 72.5–73.5° N and 138–143° E, Fig. 1). In drilling campaigns, we investigated the thermal regime, geomorphology, lithology and geocryology of sediment cores extracted from drilled boreholes and sediments sampled along the drilling transect (Fig. 2). We also performed few geoelectrical surveys, results of which were validated by direct measurement of electrical resistivity of recovered sediments. In marine expeditions, we collected conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) data, performed high-resolution sub-bottom profiling, sonar-derived imagery and visual observations (using an autonomous underwater vehicle) of geomorphological features of the seafloor (subsea thermokarst, ice scouring and pockmarks) associated with gas releases.
Figure 1: Study area bathymetry and position of the investigated sites.
Figure 1
(a) Red and blue rectangles mark study areas, where drilling was conducted in 2011–2014, position of the sites investigated in marine expeditions, data from which are presented inFigs 456789 are shown as black triangles (2D sites) and red lines (transects); two black crosses in the blue rectangle show position of the drilling transect conducted in 2012–2014 (shown enlarged in b,c); (b) position of the boreholes drilled in March 2011–2013; (c) enlarged position of the drilling transect performed the northern part of MI in 2012–2014.

Read the paper HERE


(Some) "Muslims Celebrate London Tower Fire"

I questioned Paul Joseph Watson's silence on Grenfell Tower. He did make some valid points in this article
Muslims Celebrate London Tower Fire (Despite Many of the Victims Being Muslim)
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14 June, 2017
Muslims and ISIS supporters on Twitter celebrated the London tower fire that has claimed at least six lives so far, despite many of the residents of the tower being Muslims.
Yes, really.
Greenfell Tower is located in Ladbroke Grove, an area of London populated mainly by poor ethnic minorities, many of them Muslims. Many of the affected families will be Muslim.
fundraiser for the victims of the fire also begins with the Arabic greeting “Assalamu Alaikum” (which means “peace be upon you”).
However, this didn’t stop other Muslims and ISIS sympathizers gloating about the fire online.
“Hell and good riddance,” wrote one Twitter user.
“Beautiful morning – I wish more casualties,” wrote another.
“I am very happy. Because this is what British troops do to Iraqis every day. Let them have a feel of the destruction today,” wrote Yusra Javaid.
“They bombed Iraq, Afghanistan so now this is their times,… Do not forget, everyone eat what he farmed,”added Soidicou Abdou Mari.
One commenter on Al-Jazeera even blamed Donald Trump.
“Hopefully not a set up by evil Trump and CIA to condemn even more the Mayor of London as a pre-text strategy to oust him,” wrote Ann Shah Ariffin.
“UK should repent, for all the minerals they stole from Africa and the world, and all the atrocities they committed during their so called colonial rule, karma takes her course,” added another.
“Maybe some of the CIA’s agency people are involved in setting building on fire. Because #Trump administration don’t like #MayorOfLondon Sadiq Khan being a Muslim mayor of Christian Society,” wroteSohail Gem Wazir.
A man is even heard on the video below to say “Allah Akbar” – the refrain commonly shouted by Muslims during terror attacks – as victims are still trapped inside the building.
This reaction again disproves that myth that Islam is a “religion of peace”. Islam is obsessed with death and its most vocal adherents will celebrate death even when other Muslims are the victims.

Around 90% of the victims of Islamist terror attacks are other Muslims, underscoring how the belief system itself is fundamentally barbaric outside of the contribution of any other factors such as western foreign policy.

The coup against Trump

Sean Hannity Exposes Democrat Plan To Trigger Martial Law





CIVIL EMERGENCY: SINISTER FORCES ALIGN IN THE DEEP STATE TO TURN SOFT COUP HOT

The globalists are done being patient with their attempts to get rid of Trump




The "Soft Coup" Under Way In Washington
By David Stockman



June 22, 2017 "Information Clearing House" - - Bull’s eye! “They made up a phony collusion with the Russians story, found zero proof, so now they go for obstruction of justice on the phony story. Nice … You are witnessing the single greatest WITCH HUNT in American political history – led by some very bad and conflicted people!”

The Donald has never spoken truer words but also has never sunken lower into abject victimhood. Indeed, what is he waiting for­– handcuffs and a perp walk?
Just to be clear, “he” doesn’t need to be the passive object of a “WITCH HUNT” by “they”.

If Donald Trump had any kind of presidential strategy and propensity to take command, he would have had all the intercepts of Russian chatter gathered up weeks ago. He would then have had them declassified and made public, even as he launched a criminal prosecution against Obama’s hit squad­-John Brennan,
Susan Rice and Valerie Jarrett for illegally unmasking and leaking classified information.

Such a course of action would have crushed the Russian interference hysteria in the bud.

At bottom, the latter was a rearguard invention of the Deep State and Democratic partisans. They became literally shocked and desperate for a scapegoat early last fall by the prospect that the unthinkable was happening.

Namely, the election by the unwashed masses of an outsider and insurrectionist who could not be counted upon to serve as a “trusty” for the status quo; and whose naïve but correct instinct to seek a rapprochement with Russia was a mortal threat to the very modus operandi of the Imperial City.

Moreover, from the very beginning, the Russian interference narrative was rooted in nothing more than standard cyber noise from Moscow that pales compared to what comes out of Langley (CIA) and Ft. Meade (NSA). And we do mean irrelevant noise.

After all, it didn’t take a Kremlinologist from the old Soviet days to figure out that Putin did not favor Clinton, who had likened him to Hitler. And that he welcomed Trump, who had correctly said NATO was obsolete, that he didn’t want to give lethal aid to the Ukrainians, and had expressed a desire to make a deal with Putin on Syria and numerous other areas of unnecessary confrontation.

So let’s start with two obvious points. Namely, that there is no “there, there” and that the president not only has the power to declassify secret documents at will but in this instance could do so without compromising intelligence community (IC) “sources and methods” in the slightest.

The latter is the case because after Snowden’s revelations in June 2013, the whole world was put on notice and most especially Washington’s adversaries­–that it collects in raw form every single electronic digit that passes through the worldwide web and related communications grids. It boils down to universal and omniscient SIGINT (signals intelligence), and acknowledgment of that fact by publishing the Russia-Trump intercepts would provide new knowledge to exactly no one.

Nor would it jeopardize the lives of any American spy or agent (HUMINT); it would just document the unconstitutional interference in the election process that had been committed by the US intelligence agencies and political operatives in the Obama White House.

Yes, we can hear the boxes on the CNN screen harrumphing and spinning noisily that declassifying the “evidence” would amount to obstruction of justice! That is to say, since Trump’s “crime” is axiomatic (i.e. his occupancy of the Oval Office), anything that gets in the way of his conviction and removal therefrom amounts to “obstruction”.

Given that he is up against a Deep State/Dem/Neocon/ mainstream media prosecution, the Donald has no chance of survival short of an aggressive offensive of the type described above.

But that’s not happening because the man is clueless about what he is doing in the White House and is being advised by a cacophonous coterie of amateurs and nincompoops. So he has no action plan except to impulsively reach for his Twitter account.

That became more than evident­-and more than pathetic, too­-when earlier this morning he tweeted out an attack on his own Deputy Attorney General, Rod Rosenstein. At least Nixon fired Elliot Richardson (his Attorney General) and Bill Ruckelshaus (Deputy AG):

I am being investigated for firing the FBI Director by the man who told me to fire the FBI Director! Witch Hunt”

So alone with his Twitter account, clueless advisors and pulsating rage, the Donald is instead laying the groundwork for his own demise. Were this not the White House, it would normally be the point at which they send in the men in white coats with a straight jacket.

Indeed, that’s essentially what Donald’s ostensible GOP allies on the Hill are actually doing. RussiaGate is self-evidently a witch-hunt like few others in American political history. Yet as the mainstream cameras and microphones were thrust at one Congressional Republican after another yesterday afternoon following Donald’s outburst quoted above, there was nary an echo of the agreement.

Even Senator John Thune, an ostensible Swamp-hating conservative, had nothing but praise for Special Counsel Robert Mueller while affecting an earnest confidence that he would fairly and thoroughly get to the bottom of the matter.

No he on’t!

Mueller is a card-carrying apparatchik of the Deep State, who was there at the founding of today’s surveillance monster as Director of the FBI in the aftermath of 9/11. Since the whole $75 billion apparatus that eventually emerged was based on a vastly exaggerated threat of global Islamic terrorism that doesn’t exist, Russia had to be demonized into order to keep the game going­-a transition that Mueller fully subscribed to.

So he will “find” extensive Russian interference in the 2016 election and bring the hammer down on the Donald for seeking to prevent it from coming to light. The clock is now ticking and his investigatory team is being loaded up with prosecutorial killers who have proven records of thuggery when it comes to finding crimes that make for the fame and fortune of the prosecutors­-even if the crime itself never happened.

To wit, Mueller’s #1 hire was the despicable Andrew Weissmann. The latter had led the fraud section of the department’s Criminal Division, served as general counsel to the F.B.I. when Mueller was its director, and, more importantly, was the driving force behind the Enron task force the most egregious exercise in prosecutorial abuse and thuggery since the Palmer raids of 1919.

Meanwhile, as we said the other day, the GOP elders especially could also not be clearer about what is coming down the pike.

They are not defending Trump with even a modicum of the vigor and resolve that we recall from the early days of Tricky Dick’s ordeal, and, of course, he didn’t survive anyway. Instead, it’s as if Ryan, McConnell, et al. have offered to hold his coat, while the Donald pummels himself with a 140-character Twitter Knife that is visible to the entire world


So there should be no doubt. A Great Big Coup is on the way. But here’s the irony of the matter.


Exactly four years ago in June 2013, no one was seriously demonizing Putin or Russia. In fact, the slicksters of CNN were still snickering about Mitt Romney’s silly claim during the 2012 election campaign that Russia was the greatest security threat facing America.


But then came the Syrian jihadist false flag chemical attack in the suburbs of Damascus in August 2013 and the US intelligence community’s flagrant lie that it had proof the villain was Bashar Assad.


To the contrary, it subsequently became evident that the primitive rockets that had carried the deadly sarin gas, which killed upwards of 1500 innocent civilians, could not have been fired from regime-held territory; the rockets examined by UN investigators had a range of only a few kilometers, not the 15-20 kilometers from the nearest Syrian base.


In any event, President Obama choose to ignore his own red line and called off the bombers. That, in turn, paved the way for Vladimir Putin to step into the breach and persuade Assad to give up all of his chemical weapons commitment he fully complied with over the course of the next year.


Needless to say, in the eyes of the neocon War Party, this constructive act of international statesmanship by Putin was the unforgivable sin. It thwarted the next target on their regime change agenda-removal of the Assad government in Syria as a step toward an ultimate attack on its ally, the Shiite regime of Iran.


So it did not take long for the Deep State to retaliate. While Putin was basking in the glory of the 2014 winter Olympics at Sochi, the entire apparatus of Imperial Washington–the CIA, the National Endowment for Democracy, the State Department and a long string of Washington funded NGOs-was on the ground in Kiev midwifing the putsch that overthrew Ukraine’s constitutionally elected President and Russian ally.


From there, the Ukrainian civil war and partition of Crimea inexorably followed, as did the escalating campaign against Russia and its leader.


Indeed, given the Stalin-era animosity between the Russian-speaking Donbas and Crimean regions of the confected state of Ukraine and the virulent anti-Russian populations elsewhere – including descendants of the Nazi collaborators with Hitler during WWII – there could have been no other outcome. And that was especially the case after Washington designated “Yats”, a neo-Nazi sympathizer named Arseniy Yatseniuk, as the guy to takeover the Ukrainian government at the time of the Kiev uprising.


So as it turned out, the War Party could not have planned a more fortuitous outcome – especially after Russia moved to protect its legitimate interests in its own backyard resulting from the Washington-instigated civil war in Ukraine, including protecting its 200-year old Naval base at Sevastopol in Crimea. The War Party simply characterized these actions falsely as acts of aggression by a potential sacker of the peace and territorial integrity of its European neighbors.


There is nothing like a demonized enemy to keep the $700 billion national security budget flowing and the hideous Warfare State opulence of the Imperial City intact. So why not throw in an allegedly “stolen” US election to garnish the case?


In a word, the Little Putsch in Kiev is now begetting a Great Big Coup in the Imperial City.


This is a history-shattering development, but don’t tell the boys and girls and robo-machines on Wall Street.


Pathetically, they still think its game on.


David Alan Stockman is an author, former businessman and U.S. politician who served as a Republican U.S. Representative from the state of Michigan and as the Director of the Office of Management and Budget under President Ronald Reagan.

This article was first published by Contra Corner -